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Async and Await in Lightning Web Components

Asynchronous programming is a crucial aspect of web development, and it becomes even more important when dealing with large-scale applications.

In traditional JavaScript, asynchronous programming is typically handled with callbacks or promises. However, the introduction of the async/await syntax has greatly simplified asynchronous programming in JavaScript. This syntax is available in Lightning Web Components as well and can help to simplify your code and make it more readable.


What is Async and Await?


Async/await is essentially a way to write asynchronous code that looks and behaves more like synchronous code. Async/await is built on top of promises, which are used to handle asynchronous operations in JavaScript.


The async keyword is used to define an asynchronous function, which returns a promise. Within this function, you can use the await keyword to pause the execution of the function until a promise is resolved or rejected. This makes your code look more like synchronous code, as the execution is blocked until the promise resolves.


How to use Async and Await in Lightning Web Components


Now that we understand what async/await is, let's take a look at how we can use it in Lightning Web Components. The first step is to define an asynchronous function. Here's an example of an asynchronous function that returns a promise:


async function fetchData() {

const response = await fetch('/api/data');

const data = await response.json();

return data;

}


In this example, we're using the fetch API to make a request to an API endpoint. We're using the await keyword to pause the execution of the function until the promise returned by fetch is resolved.

Once the promise is resolved, we parse the response body as JSON using the response.json() method. Finally, we return the resulting data.

To use this function in a Lightning Web Component, we can simply call it from the component's JavaScript file:


import { LightningElement } from 'lwc';

import fetchData from './fetchData';


export default class MyComponent extends LightningElement {

async connectedCallback() {

const data = await fetchData();

console.log(data);

}

}


Promise with Async and Await


import { LightningElement, api } from 'lwc';

import fetchData from '@salesforce/apex/MyController.fetchData';


export default class MyComponent extends LightningElement {

@api recordIds;

data = [];


async connectedCallback() {

const promises = this.recordIds.map(id => fetchData({ recordId: id }));

const results = await Promise.all(promises);

this.data = results;

}

}


Common Use Cases for Async and Await


As you can see, the use of async and await is not limited to just making API calls. In fact, they're very useful when you want to perform an action that takes a long time. For example:


  • Making HTTP requests

  • Waiting for an asynchronous action to finish

  • Processing multiple promises in parallel

Error Handling with Async and Await


As you've seen, async functions return promises. If an exception is thrown in an async function, the promise it returns will be rejected with that exception. This can be handled by catching errors with try/catch blocks as usual:


try {

await someAsyncFunction(arg1); // do something else here...

} catch(e) { // handle error here... }


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